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Especially in the production of pharmaceutical active substances, but also for numerous aseptic processes, installations with a high degree of individualization are required as the high variant diversity can hardly be covered by standard components. As a result, valve manufacturers demand high expertise in the field of construction as well as close interaction between planner and manufacturer at the planning stage of (aseptic) installations to ensure e.g. the draining capability of the installation along with utmost compactness. That arises from the product-related high diversity of biotechnological processes and from particularities in the processing and consolidation of ingredients for these highly sensitive products.
Similar to single-seated valves, multi-seat valves consist of the valve body, however, are equipped with various diaphragms and actuators, as well as one control and feedback unit per actuator.
With the exclusive use of gate valves, i.e. diaphragm valves that block the flow in a pipeline using a single diaphragm, the variation options would be limited to different nominal connection sizes. Adding and combining T- or Y- shaped single-seated valves allows quite complicated process flows and distributions. Nonetheless, multi-seat valves contain specific advantages for aseptic processes, leading to a virtually endless flexibility in system design.
Since multi-seat valves are mostly made from a forged block, which enables an extremely compact design, they are sometimes referred to as block valves.
The compactness of a multifunctional multi-seat valve and hence the installation can be strongly influenced by the size of available actuators. Significant advantages can be achieved by using actuators whose diameters is not larger than the diaphragms' diameters.
Distinguished manufacturers of multi-seat valves are GEMÜ, Bürkert, Saunders and SISTO.
Price on Request: Get Latest PriceFoot valves are a kind of valve that is used with a pump. The pump can be pumping a liquid (hydraulic) or a gas (pneumatic). Foot valves are found in well pumps, sump pumps, water intake pumps (in rivers and lakes) and in the pneumatic brake lines of big trucks. To understand what foot valves do, it is necessary to understand a little about check valves and pumps.
Price on Request: Get Latest PriceDiaphragm valves (or membrane valves) consists of a valve body with two or more ports, a diaphragm, and a "weir or saddle" or seat upon which the diaphragm closes the valve. The valve body may be constructed from plastic, metal, wood or other materials depending on the intended use.Originally, the diaphragm valve was developed for use in industrial applications and/or pipe-organs. Later on the design was adapted for use in the bio-pharmaceutical industry by using compliant materials that can withstand sanitizing and sterilizing methods.
There are two main categories of diaphragm valves: one type seals over a "weir" (saddle) and the other (sometimes called a "full bore or straight-way" valve) seals over a seat. The weir or saddle type is the most common in process applications and the seat-type is more commonly used in slurry applications to reduce blocking issues but exists also as a process valve. While diaphragm valves usually come in two-port forms (2/2-way diaphragm valve), they can also come with three ports (3/2-way diaphragm valves also called T-valves) and more (so called block-valves). When more than three ports are included, they generally require more than one diaphragm seat; however, special dual actuators can handle more ports with one membrane.
Diaphragm valves can be manual or automated. Their application is generally as shut-off valves in process systems within the industrial, food and beverage, pharmaceutical and biotech industries. The older generation of these valves is not suited for regulating and controlling process flows, however newer developments in this area have successfully tackled this problem.
Price on Request: Get Latest PricePneumatic actuators enable considerable forces to be produced from relatively small pressure changes. A pneumatic actuator converts energy formed by vacuum or compressed air at high pressure into either linear or rotary motion. Pneumatic energy is desirable for main engine controls because it can quickly respond in starting and stopping as the power source does not need to be stored in reserve for operation. Moreover, pneumatic actuators are safer, cheaper, and often more reliable and powerful than other actuators. These forces are often used with valves to move diaphragms to affect the flow of air through the valve.
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To prevent casual use or misuse, the hydrant requires special tools to be opened, usually a large wrench with a pentagonal socket. Vandals sometimes cause monetary loss by wasting water when they open hydrants. Such vandalism can also reduce municipal water pressure and impair firefighters' efforts to extinguish fires. Sometimes those simply seeking to play in the water remove the caps and open the valve, providing residents a place to play and cool off in summer. However, this is usually discouraged as residents have been struck by passing automobiles while playing in the street in the water spray. In spite of this, some US communities provide low flow sprinkler heads to enable residents to use the hydrants to cool off during hot weather, while gaining some control on water usage. Most fire hydrants in Australia are protected by a silver-coloured cover with a red top, secured to the ground with bolts to protect the hydrant from vandalism and unauthorized use. The cover must be removed before use.
In most areas of the United States, contractors who need temporary water may purchase permits to use hydrants. The permit will generally require a hydrant meter, a gate valve and sometimes a clapper valve (if not designed into the hydrant already) to prevent back-flow into the hydrant. Additionally, residents who wish to use the hydrant to fill their in-ground swimming pool are commonly permitted to do so, provided they pay for the water and agree to allow firefighters to draft from their pool in the case of an emergency.
Municipal services, such as street sweepers and tank trucks, may also be allowed to use hydrants to fill their water tanks. Often sewer maintenance trucks need water to flush out sewerage lines, and fill their tanks on site from a hydrant. If necessary, the municipal workers will record the amount of water they used, or use a meter.
Since fire hydrants are one of the most accessible parts of a water distribution system, they are often used for attaching pressure gauges or loggers or monitor system water pressure. Automatic flushing devices are often attached to hydrants to maintain chlorination levels in areas of low usage. Hydrants are also used as an easy above-ground access point by leak detection devices to locate leaks from the sound they make.
Fire hydrants may be used to supply water to riot control vehicles. These vehicles use a high pressure water cannon to discourage rioting.
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During commissioning of heating and cooling systems, hydraulic balance is often achieved using balancing valves. Two types of these valves exist: static and dynamic balancing valves.
Static balancing valves serve as a permanent resistance, built into the system. The settings for these valves must therefore be calculated and adjusted accurately, as changing just one of them in the system could change the flow through all other valves.
Dynamic balancing valves work as flow limiters. They are set to a desired flow rate and ensure that a larger flow rate does not take place. If the pressure in front of the valve increases, it will close some more, so the pressure loss across the valve becomes correspondingly higher. This maintains the desired flow rate in the specific path.
The inlet pressure for a dynamic balancing valve needs to be higher than a certain limit for it to operate properly. This means that the resistance at the most distant valve cannot be close to zero, as is the case with static valves.
Balancing valves are available from numerous manufacturers. Some of these provide electronic measurement equipment that allows measuring the flow through their valves. This is done by measuring the pressure loss across the valve and calculating the flow according to the kv-value of the present position of the valve.
Price on Request: Get Latest PriceA cooling or heating water distribution system is in balance when the flow in the whole system (through the component terminal lines, distributing lines and main distributing lines) corresponds to the flow rates that were specified for the design of the system. If the correct balancing of the system is not established, this will result in unequal distribution of the flow, so that there will be a surplus effect in some of the terminals, whereas the effect will be inadequate in others. As a consequence, the required heating or cooling will not be ensured in all parts of the installation. Practically, it is not possible to achieve a completely balanced system by manipulation of the piping or alteration of the pipe dimensions only. Only a correct set of balancing valves can ensure the correct distribution of the flow in the system.
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NRV may stand for:
Price on Request: Get Latest PriceNon slam check valves are used in gas or liquid duty were every attempt must be made to prevent pressure waves caused by the slamming of a disk or flapper during reverse flow, this is normally achieved by having a conical in line piston which enables a smooth flow stream for the medium.
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A pressure regulator's primary function is to match the flow of gas through the regulator to the demand for gas placed upon it, whilst maintaining a constant output pressure.
If the load flow decreases, then the regulator flow must decrease as well. If the load flow increases, then the regulator flow must increase in order to keep the controlled pressure from decreasing due to a shortage of gas in the pressure system.
A pressure regulator includes a restricting element, a loading element, and a measuring element:
In the pictured single-stage regulator, a force balance is used on the diaphragm to control a poppet valve in order to regulate pressure. With no inlet pressure, the spring above the diaphragm pushes it down on the poppet valve, holding it open. Once inlet pressure is introduced, the open poppet allows flow to the diaphragm and pressure in the upper chamber increases, until the diaphragm is pushed upward against the spring, causing the poppet to reduce flow, finally stopping further increase of pressure. By adjusting the top screw, the downward pressure on the diaphragm can be increased, requiring more pressure in the upper chamber to maintain equilibrium. In this way, the outlet pressure of the regulator is controlled.